She is considered the mother (Mama) who begets life, nurtures it and protects it. Her name is popularly translated as "Mother Earth", although the archaic meaning of "Pacha" was not only referred to the earth, but to the universe and time.
The Pachamama, or Mother Earth, is the female goddess of earth and fertility, a benign agricultural divinity conceived as the mother who nourishes, protects and sustains human beings. In the Inca tradition, it is the deity of communal agriculture, the foundation of all civilization and the Andean State. It is the most popular of the mythological beliefs of the Inca area that still survives strongly in the provinces of northwestern Argentina.
August 1 is when the Pachamama is fed, for which a clay pot with cooked food is buried, along with coca leaves, alcohol, wine, cigarettes and chicha, among other things.
The rite supposes that that day we must give to Mother Earth everything that we would not want our family to lack during the year and thank her for the favors received during the past year. Families and neighbors gather to dig a well in the ground, which will be adorned with streamer and confetti. Next, the Earth is fed with corn, quinoa, chalona, lamb, kid, different potatoes, beans, ears of corn, wine, beer, soft drinks, coca and other typical foods. Then the well is closed with the hands and it is given to smoke.
Several towns in the northwest host this celebration. Among them, San Antonio de los Cobres stands out, in Salta, where since 1995 the National Festival of the Pachamama of the Native Peoples has been organized. Here, the festivity includes, in addition to the central ceremony of the burial of offerings at 3:00 p.m., craft fairs, meals from different Colla communities, a music and dance festival. Throughout August, San Antonio de los Cobres has a tourist circuit to get to know the town, visit the incredible Museum of High Mountain Archeology and attend other Pachamama rituals.
Jujuy is an important worship center for the Pachamama. Throughout the province, it is worshiped by performing an ancient ceremony, in which offerings are given to the land, food, drinks and coca leaves. The celebration acquires greater relevance in Purmamarca, Tumbaya, Valle Grande and throughout the Puna of Jujuy.